MEKARN Workshop 2008: Organic rabbit production from forages
Farmer as a human resource is needed in livestock development because she/he has important role in the growth and the development itself. And it is depend on productivity and work quality which will be a reflection of each farmerís work ethos and also a reflection of way of life, including way of thinking, way of feeling and way of doing. The aim of this research is to know how the farmerís family can do five efforts of breeding rabbit based on work culture and work ethos in developing rabbit livestock. From that reason, the writer did research about Effect Of Family Management On The Development Of Household Rabbit Farming In Lembang Areas. The writer wish result of this research will give information for rabbit livestock development and specially for policy in animal husbandry. This research has been done in Gudang Kahuripan village, Lembang sub district, Bandung regency. This research use survey method. Respondents are determined with Simple Random Sampling technique. With assumption the population is homogenous. Total respondents is 30 rabbit farmers from 127 population of rabbit farmer in the village. The data consists primary and secondary data. The Primary is from the rabbit farmers and observation in the area with questionnaires. Secondary data is from Dinas Peternakan of Lembang sub district and office of Gudang Kahuripan village. To see how family management in rabbit livestock business, the writer observed to several variables: work culture, knowledge of 5 efforts animal husbandry, work ethos. Conclusion of the research is: 1) family, society and environment involvement in Gudang Kahuripan village support the development of raising rabbit, 2) knowledge development to rabbit farmer family is needed, especially about the 5 efforts animal husbandry and technology of rabbit product advantage.
Successful effort need support from human resource quality which is the main energy on an effort operationalization. Human resource needs maximum support and development in order to support the growth and the development of the effort to success.
Farmer as a human resource is needed in livestock development because it has important role in the growth and the development itself. And it is depend on productivity and work quality which will be a reflection of each farmerís work ethos and also a reflection of way of life, including way of thinking, way of feeling and way of doing.
One of successful livestock is doing five efforts of livestock, including breeding, feeding, management, controlling desease and marketing. But to do those efforts they must have 5 skills : skill in breeding, skill in feeding, skill in management, skill in controlling desease and skill in seeing the demand and the market growth. One of important thing that will help the farmer in growing traditional farming is rabbit.
From its potential and productivity, rabbit can give income to society such as its meat, skin, fertilizer, as pet and animal testing. Beside it can raising the farmerís income, rabbit livestock can use natural resource such as in Lembang, which is in North Bandung and a potential area to breed rabbit.
The place to make this research is Gudang Kahuripan village, Lembang sub district, Bandung regency, West Java, Indonesia. This village is rabbit breeding center and has 7,210 rabbits and 127 farmers (Dinas Peternakan Kecamatan Lembang), with area 254.74 km2 , height is 1.200 m above sea level, rainfall is 186,23 mm/ year and daily temperature is around 20o Ė 24o. From the area condition, the village is suitable to breed rabbit.
The population of the village is 11.788 people (2006). From that total 55,52% is productive age (19-55 year). On that age, productivity and creativity is in the top level for themselves, their family and their environment. Beside, that age is usually has high potential to develop their effort or business (Agus Sujanto, 1986). Farmer achievement in growing rabbit livestock is affected by farmerís attitude and family support. Working attitude and behaviour whether in group or in society is affected by culture.
People culture model includes thinking model, attitude model which lead to behavior model, therefore working ethos is a group of basic thinking or mental program which will be used to increase working efficient and cooperation among society. And this has connection with people education level because education is an important aspect to grow rabbit livestock, so it will gain good result. The aim of this research is to know how the farmerís family can do five efforts of breeding rabbit based on culture and work ethos in developing rabbit livestock. From that reason, the writer did research about Effect Of Family Management On The Development Of Household Rabbit Farming In Lembang Areas. The writer wish result of this research will give information for rabbit livestock development and specially for policy in animal husbandry.
This research has been done in Gudang Kahuripan village, Lembang sub district , Bandung regency. This research use survey method. Population of rabbit farmer in the village is 127 people with 7210 rabbits.
The data consists primary and secondary data. The Primary is from the rabbit farmers and observation in the area with questionnaires. Secondary data is from Dinas Peternakan of Lembang sub district and office of Gudang Kahuripan village.
Respondents are determined with Simple Random Sampling technique. With assumption the population is homogen. Total respondents is 30 rabbit farmers. It is based on Arikunto (1992) that if total subject is between 10-15% or 20-25% from population, it means the sample of the research is 25%. It also supported by Sujana (1992) that if sample is bigger or equal with 30, it will close to norma distribution curve.
To see how family management in rabbit livestock business, the writer observed to several variables:
Work culture, with seeing the farmersís attitude to rabbit farming. To know this, the writer make some questions and give score in every answer with using Likert scale There are 3 option (high, medium, and low), and dividing 3 category with using interval class formula (Sujana, 1996).
Knowledge of 5 efforts animal husbandry. The measured indicator is level of introduction of breeding, feeding, management, controlling decease and marketing by giving the questionnaire to the farmer about knowledge of rabbit farming.
Work ethos, with giving some questions. The writer use 3 option of Likert scale (strong, middle strong and weak) and use interval class formula (Sudjana, 1996). And to see strong conection between work culture and work ethos in managing husbandry business use analysis of coefisien correlation of Rank Spearman (Siegel,1997)
Population of rabbit livestock in Gudang Kahuripan village is the highest. It is 7210 rabbits, then followed by 2218 poultries, 924 ducks and birds, and 126 cows. (Monografi Desa Gudang Kahuripan Lembang 2006). It means the village is a potential place to develop rabbit livestock. Beside that the farmers on the village is active in raising rabbit livestock, based on fact that they have Farmer Trader Rabbitís community called Paguyuban Peternak Pedagang Kelinci Lembang (P3KL). Even some people who got fired from their working place had change their profession into rabbit farmer. And in 1980 this village is chosen by government as a place to raise animal protein during 4 years. They raise cross of New Zealand White, Rex, English Angora, Dutch, Lop, Himalayan. Rabbit livestock in the village is in small scale and traditional, and usually for pet.
The result of the survey show that education level of people of Gudang Kahuripan village is dominated by elementary graduated (1065 people or 38,84%), then Junior high school graduated (869 people or 31,69%), senior high school graduated (765 people or 27%) and 1,56% diploma and fresh graduate. This education level will influence the development of rabbit livestock, as opinion of Mosher (1978), that education is one of factors to support agriculture development because with education someone will know and understand in doing something.
Job of people of Gudang Kahuripan village as a livestock farmer is in the lowest place (11,52%) than a trader (28,90%), farmer (22,43%), public service officer (26,53%) and the rest is laborer and craftsman. A big potential of trader and farmer can support rabbit livestock development, specially food supply from agricultural residue. Land in the village is used as resident (46,04%) and field for vegetable and fruit (43,78%), the rest is for government office, park and pool.
From 30 respondent, majority is in a productive age (24-55 years). It is 93,33%. This is match with opinion of Wiratmadja (1986) that 15-55 ages is a productive age and has high ability to raise its business because it supported by good thinking and physically ability. Those are useful in raising rabbit specialy in giving and looking food source. But respondent with age more than 55 ages (6,67%) is not productive, however they able to manage rabbit livestock very well. They raise about 50-127 rabbits and using family as worker. It make their business run very good, although their education are very low. About 50% is junior high school graduated, 26,67% is elementary graduated and 20% is senior high school graduated, the rest are not going to school. This explain that non productive age is not an obstacle in raising rabbit livestock, but the experience is important.
Rabbit raising experience in the village is various. There is 1-5 years experience (56,67%), 6-10 years experience with 30-100 rabbits (30%), and 11 Ė 55 years experience (6,67%) with 200-300 rabbits. Farmers with experience more than 16 years (6,67%) have 50-100 rabbits. The result of this research show that experience is not always followed by raising of rabbit amount.
From the farmer attitude to job as rabbit farmer, 96,67% said that raising rabbit is a hobby, and 3,33% is for earn living and help the environment such as making fertilizer. They believe that the job give advantage to themselves, family and society. It is match with opinion of Gerungan (1988) the farmerís attitude is supported by their motivation, motivation from themselves, and this attitude is because social interaction (Abu Ahmadi, 1999), They make Paguyuban Peternak Pedagang Kelinci Lembang (P3KL) as a community to exchange ideas and experiences. Thus they can develop themselves as personal, family and society.
From the result of the research, 76,67% family of rabbit farmer said that they do that because of their own decision. The reason of raising rabbit is relatively easy, do not need vast area to raise it, can answer jobless problem and open new work space.
Knowledge and skill in 5 of raising rabbit in Gudang Kahuripan village in Lembang has not optimum yet. They only know several criteria in raising rabbit (breed, food, management, controlling decease and marketing)
From it business management, they can manage time. It can see from family cooperation in raising their rabbit. The result show 96,67% farmer with limited knowledge and based on experience know several healthy rabbit criteria such as bright eyes, smooth fur, has same height, and dry nose. But 3,33% farmer only know bright eyes, smooth fur and has same height. 76,67% respondents made selection based on pedigree and physical condition of rabbit. This is a first good step, because it will help the rabbit farmer to breed. 6,67% respondents only make selection from weight and fur color, and 16,66% make selection based on market demand but do not have orientation in raising of production.
Rabbit is a prolific and growing very fast. From the research, rabbit farmer usually breed rabbit in natural way, such as put does into buck cage. Based on sex ratio, 6% confess 1: 8 , 3% confess 1:6 and 91% confess 1 : 8. They had done it very well. Cheeke (1982) said that sex ratio in rabbit is around 1 : 10. First age to breed is various for each type of rabbit. For big type, 80% respondents said that first age to breed is 6 months, and 20% said 5 months. And they said that age is important thing in breeding of rabbit. If rabbit is too young, its pedigree will be bad. From the result of survey, their skiil in breeding rabbit is good.
To gain productivity rabbit per year, respondents breed rabbit 3 Ė 5 times per year : 43,33% respondents breed rabbit 5 times a year, 46,66% respondents breed rabbit 4 times a year and 10,91% respondent breed rabbit 3 times a year.
The respondents is weaning rabbit between 28-56 days : 43,33% respondents are weaning in 56 days, 43,33% in 42 days, 13,34% in 28 days. The reason is to fulfill the demand of consumers and stock of selling. From the result of this research only 86,66% do the right thing as Cheeke (1982) and Sarwono (1989) said that good age for rabbit to wean is 56 days.
It means rabbit farmer in the village manage their cattle very well, altough with limited knowledge and lack of information. However it become basic thing in developing of raising rabbit in Lembang.
From the respondent, 56,67% of them give ransom twice a day, and 43,33% give three times a day. And it is match with serving suggestion method. Based on type of ration, 70% of the farmer give grass, 26,67 % give vegetable waste and rare give consentrate, and 3,33% give 10% consentrate from weight. It means the farmer awarness in giving consentrate is still low because of limited financial. Frequency of giving ransom is right but the quality and the quantity is far from expectation. This matter become a basic thing to develop an expected rabbit raising. Therefore, knowledge of how giving ransom effectively is needed.
They use System battery cage which is made from wood and wire, but not qualify and its condition is still simple. Management of environment maintenance such as cleaning the cage, is good. They do it twice a day, morning and evening before giving the ration to rabbit. They clean in order to avoid disease to their rabbit. To anticipate smell from their rabbit, 76,67% make special ditch for rabbit feces and it is far from the cage. The feces is collected by farmer directly for their vegetable field.
86,97% farmer in the village had done recording, but only when the rabbit is pregnant, married, delivering baby and based on it sex. But 13,33% respondent donít do recording. They know that recording is important but they have not understand it yet.
The farmer realize the important thing in controlling disease. All respondents are agree for sanitation in order to prevent the decease to their cattle.73,33% respondents said that diarrhea is the most common disease that attack rabbit, then 23,67% respondents said for scabies. Actually they have done the prevention such as isolating sick rabbit, and giving medicine. 70% respondents use human medicine such as Diapet for diarrhea and Invermectin, and for scabies is using Wormectin. And 30% respondents use traditional medicine such as guava leaf because it is cheaper; beside they want to use medicine plants around their environment.
The result of the research show that aim of raising rabbit of the entire rabbit farmer is for pet, usually New Zealand White, Angora, Californian, Lop, Dutch, Rex and Carolina/ They sell it in all around the road of Lembang, because many tourists passed the road. Besides selling it, they also send rabbit to Jakarta, Cirebon, Medan, Indramayu and Sukabumi. About 96,37 % of rabbit farmer sell rabbit depend on demand and 3,33 % sell rabbit in high price than usual, such as in the weekend or holiday.
Family support to develop raising rabbit in the village is good. They have high work culture and strong work ethos, it can be seen with small correlation (0,40). However there is strong impact in developing the business, it is external motivation. External motivation can be seen on high of the demand. And it is supported by attitude and work culture of rabbit farmer especially positive management, because they work based on happiness, self actualization, soul calling, dedication, accuration and carefully in raising rabbit.
The rabbit farmer already has entrepreneurship soul, but it is different in each individual. It can be seen from their effort, energy and not easily give in, able to use their all potential whether from their self or their family, and have orientation in developing the productivity of rabbit. Rabbit farmer attitude to the change is big. 93% of the farmer can accept the change in raising rabbit. They believe with new information, they can expect a better life. But they are also being careful with the change, special rabbit farmer with small capital. They interest can be seen on how they increase their knowledge on raising rabbit by joining rabbit farmer and trader group, discussion, exchanging information and experience with a successful farmer or copy other successful farmer quietly.
Conclusion of the research is:
Family, society and environment involvement in Gudang Kahuripan village support the development of raising rabbit.
Knowledge development to rabbit farmer family is needed, especially about the 5 efforts animal husbandry and technology of rabbit product advantage.
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