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MEKARN Workshop 2008: Organic rabbit production from forages

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Consumer Acceptability To Grilled Skewed Rabbit Meat

Kusmajadi Suradi

Research institute for animal production Bogor, Indonesia

 

Abstract    

Rabbit meat is not as popular as meat from other cattle, thus through grilled skewed meat or satay process, hopefully, it can be accepted by people. Therefore aim of this research is to know consumer acceptability to grilled skewed rabbit meat. Research applied census method to 20 grilled skewed rabbit  meat merchants in Gudang Kahuripan village, Lembang subdistrict, Bandung regency, and 40 consumers, as untrained panelist, to know their acceptability to its colour, aroma, taste and tenderness.This research used hedonic scale : 5 as Excellent, 4 as Like, 3 as Medium, 2 as Donít Like and 1 as Extremely donít like. Result of the research indicates that the stall of grilled skewed rabbit meat is a semi permanent building, the floor are made from cement and they offer two kinds of seating ; seat in chairs and seat in floor.They use 4-8 months rabbit and weight around 2-4 kg. They use local rabbit and New Zealand White. One rabbit can make 60 Ė 80  grilled skewed rabbit meat. The price of grilled skewed rabbit meat serving is Rp.15.000,- per portion. Including the meat itself (10 skewer) and rice, and seasoning with nut and soy sauce. The  consumers like grilled skewed rabbit meat. In Medium to Like scale, their favorite  to its color is 36% Medium, 60% Like and 4% Excellent,  then to its aroma is 15% Medium, 76% Like and 9% Excellent. In Like to Excellent scale, their favorite to its taste is  9% Medium, 77% Like, and 14% Excellent, and to its tenderness is 7% Medium, 73% Like, and 20% Excellent.

 

Introduction

The rabbit livestock development as a source of meat still  has many obstacles, one of them is unpopularity. The Unpopularity of  rabbit meat in society is perhaps because of food habit and psychological effect  which considered  rabbit  as a pet  and couldnít be consumed. The change of food habit can be done with the change of society environment and the change of food itself which will lead to decision  whether accepting it or receiving it. Environment changing  includes complex things, such as social, economic and ecology changing which lead to culture and social changing. Thus we need meat process technology to change its serving and its form so that people would accept it. One of the process is making grilled skewed rabbit meat, then rabbit meat can be accepted by consumers. 

Grilled skewed meat or satay is skewed meat which is roasted  and usually use bamboo or lidi as skewer. Grilled skewed meat is served with various flavors. It is  depend on its origin. Grilled skewed meat is originally from Java island, and also popular in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Netherland.  Usually, grilled skewed meat is made from beef, lamb, and chicken but itís also possible using another meat or edible meat, fish  and egg. There is many variation in seasoning the grilled skewed meat in Indonesia Beside, there is also variation in flavoring grilled skewed in Indonesia, such as Madura satay, Padang satay, Ponorogo satay, Tegal satay, Ambal satay, Blora satay, Lilit satay, Makassar satay, Maranggi satay ,Milky Satay, Skin Satay, Horse meat Satay, Turtle Satay, Pork Satay, Milkfish Satay, Testicles Satay, Young egg Satay, Pusut satay, Ampet satay, Wrapped Satay, Eel Satay, Bird Satay, Liver Satay, Banjar satay.

Grilled skewed merchant can be seen all along the road of Bandung- Lembang, specially in Kahuripan village,  Lembang subdistrict , Bandung regency.  The tendernes and performance of grilled skewed rabbit meat is similar with grilled skewed chicken meat, because rabbit meat has smooth fiber and pale color. Therefore rabbit meat is categorized as white meat. Character of white meat  is  lower fat, and higher glycogen than red meat (Forrest et al.1975), but rabbit meat has superiority  in cholesterol content, protein and energy than chicken meat (Chan et al. 1995) .  Because of that rabbit meat can be suggested as special serving for heart attack patient, old people,  and for people who has problem with obesity. Other advantage of rabbit meat is  thinner bone and smoother meat, and shorter fiber,  so its easy to chew (Benneth 1988).

With grilled skewed meat form, rabbit meat is liked by people. Hopefully with this process rabbit meat would  be accepted by them and would decrease obstacle in developing rabbit livestock, but still we havenít known yet  how far consumer  preference level to the grilled skewed meat.  Consumer acceptabilityís level can be measured  using organoleptik examination through sense. Winarno (1997) said that in examining food ingredients is not only looking from its chemical aspect  but also from its taste and aroma. One of  the advantage of this examination is developing new product (Soekarto, 1985). Thus this organoleptik examination need to do to know how far acceptability of consumer to grilled skewed rabbit meat.

Organoleptic examination is result of physiological including opinion or quality impression by group of people which are called panelist. Panelist is a group of people that examine character or quality of material subjectively. Bambang Kartika et al. (1988) categorized panelist into 3 groups, e.g : experts panelist, trained panelist, untrained panelist. An experts panelist is a panelist who has high sensitivity level. Trained panelist classifies as trained and slightly trained. Trained panelist is selected member and doing exercise continously and passed from abbility evaluation. Slightly panelist is unselection member, but spontanously individu  and become examinator. This panelist is given an explanation about sample and character which will be measured and necessary training. Untrained panelist is not based on sensitivity but favorite on a product. Favorite  examination is an examination which its panelits confes their  likeness and  dislikeness to spontaneously examinated material.

Taste, aroma, color and tenderness are important factors, wether the food is accepted or refused by the consumers. Taste is an important thing in judging food and it involves tongue. Winarno (1997) said that taste is affected by chemical compound, temperature, consistent, and interaction with protein, fat, vitamin, and so on.  Aroma from  meat can be brought to processing product. Aroma in meat can be affected by age, genetic, breed, keeping environment, food and chemical compound from the meat (Davendra and Burns, 1983). Color of the meat is affected by color pigment of meat, myoglobin. This compound will change into brown metmyoglobin by heat (Forrest et al. 1975). Meat tenderness is affected by meat fiber (Lawrie, 1995; Forrest et al. 1975). Rabit meat has smooth fiber and good tenderness (Cheeke, 1982). Tenderness, color, texture, juiceness and shrinked meat are affected by protein ability to bond water.  (Forrest et al., 1975). Thus, the aim of this result is to know how consumer acceptability to grilled skewed rabbit meat, specially ini Lembang Bandung area.  


Object and Method of Research

Object of  Research

Object of this research is the merchant and the consumer of grilled skewed rabbit meat all along the road of Bandung Ė Lembang, Gudang Kahuripan village, Lembang subdistrict, Bandung regency.

Method of Research

This research used census method to 20 grilled skewed rabbit meat merchants in Gudang Kahuripan village, Lembang subdistrict, Bandung regency and 40 consumers as panelist. Sudjana (1992) said that if sample of measurement is bigger or equal with 30, it will resemble normal curve. Consumers filled in a questionnaire about their acceptability of grilled skewed rabbit meat such as the color, aroma, taste and tenderness. 

Examination Method

Making a questionnaire with  information, instruction and panelist response.

Information section is about date of examination, name or sort of sample.

Instruction section is about the task  and how to evaluate or give responses.

In response section, the panelists must fill in their answer about their impression to grilled skewed rabbit meat which was served. There are : excellent, very like, like, slightly like, medium and donít like.

 Data Processing

Hedonic scale is transformed as numeric scale, such as excellent = 5, like = 4, slightly like = 3, medium = 2 and donít like = 1.

Calculating percentage of acceptability and average level of the consumers acceptability to grilled skewed rabbit meat.   


Results and Discussion

The location of grilled skewed rabbit meat stalls are very strategic because  many tourists pass on the road. There are 20 stalls which spread along the road of Bandung Ė Lembang, Gudang Kahuripan village. Most of  the stalls condition are simple and traditional. The stall is a semi permanent building, the floor are made from cement and they offer two kinds of seating ; seat in chairs and seat in floor.

The merchants grill the skewed rabbit meat in front or side of the stall and they donít have special kitchen to grill. They use 4-8 months rabbit, because of the meat tenderness.

They use local rabbit (Gibas rabbit) and New Zealand White. One rabbit can make 60 Ė 80 pieces of  grilled skewed rabbit meat, and seasoning with nut and soy sauce flavor. The price of  a rabbit for making grilled skewed rabbit meat is around Rp. 30.000 until Rp. 50.000,-  and it's weight is around 2 Ė 4 kg. All merchants buy rabbits and slaughter it by themselves when they need it. But sometimes the rabbit seller can not provide the demand. This condition makes the grilled skewed rabbit meat merchants not to buy rabbits from one seller, but from many sellers. Cihanjuang, Pasirwangi, Garut, Ciwidey, Cikalong, Padalarang, Sumedang, Cililin and Pangalengan are the place of rabbit seller. The price of grilled skewed rabbit meat serving is Rp.15.000,- per portion. Including the meat itself (Rp.13.000,- per 10 skewer) and rice (Rp.2000,- per portion).

The result of consumerís judgment to the color, aroma, taste and tenderness is in Table 1.

Tabel 1.  Percentage of  consumer judgement to acceptability of grilled skewed rabbit meat

 Hedonic Scale

Numeric Scale

Color

Aroma

Taste

Tenderness

Extremely donít like

Donít like

Medium

Like

Excellent

1

2

3

4

5

-

-

36

60

 4

-

-

15

76

 9

-

-

  9

77

14

-

-

  7

73

20

Total

100

100

100

100

Data in table 1 show that percentage of consumerís judgement of acceptability to the color, aroma, taste and tenderness is focused on "Like. There "were no consumers who didnít like the grilled skewed  rabbit meat. Consumers who give a Medium response to color and aroma were still a high percentage. But  percent of consumers who gave an Excellent impression was low. This is explaining  by the consumerís judgement to the color and aroma is not striking. They  considered that the color and the aroma are just like other common grilled skewed meat - yellow brownish and smoked aroma.     

The judgment on the taste and tenderness was different with the judgment result on the color and the aroma. Total consumers who judged Medium on the taste and the tenderness is lower that those who judged Excellent. Consumers who judged Medium on the taste was 9% and on the tenderness was 7%. Consumers who judged Excellent on the taste were 14% and on the tenderness  20%.

This indicates that the consumers rated taste and tenderness in a higher category than color and aroma.

Average result of numeric and hedonic scale on grilled skewed rabbit meat is in Table 2.

 

Table 2. Average of Numeric and Hedonic scale of grilled skewed rabbit meat

Measured Variable

Numeric Scale

Hedonic Scale

 Color

 Aroma

 Taste

 Tenderness

3,68  Ī 0,55

3,94  Ī 0,49

4,05  Ī 0,48

4,13  Ī 0,51

Medium to Like

Medium to Like

Like to Excellent

Like to Excellent

Data in table 2 showed that consumerís judgment on the color and the aroma on hedonic scale of Medium to Like is lower than the taste and the tenderness, which  is Like to Excellent on hedonic scale. It means that grilled skewed rabbit meat has superiority in taste and tenderness.

 

Color, aroma and taste of grilled skewed rabbit develop during roasting. Chemical compounds in the smoke will bond with the meat and give a preservative effect, thus the storage will be long-lasting and it will give special taste and color. In the end it will affect acceptability.

The main chemical compounds in the smoke are formic acetic, butyric, caprylic, vanilic and siringic acids, dimetoksifenol, metal glioksal, furfural, methanol, etanol, oktanol, asetaldehid, diasetil, aseton, and 3,4- benzinpiren (Lawrie, 1995). The chemical compound roles are bacteriostatic, bacteriocidal and blocking of fat oxidation.  (Winarno et al., 1980).

Consumerís favorite reaction on the tenderness of grilled skewed rabbit meat is because of its smoother texture than beef. Cheeke (1982) said that rabbit meat has smooth fiber. The heat which is transferred  to the meat during roasting will change the chemical and physical trait of meat protein. There is denaturation, coagulation and degradation, fat liquification, enzyme destruction and microbe, loss of some nutrients (eg: sugar) and amino reaction and flavor component interaction (Priestly, 1976). These give effect to the tenderness and acceptability trait of the meat. Wasserman (1972) cited by Priestley (1976) said  reactions which have a role in the meat flavor  are : degradation of amino acid into volatile  constituents, carbohydrate caramelization, Maillard browning reaction, lipid liquification, volatile component degradation, and ribonucleotide formation.

Conclusion

From the research and discussion I conclude that the  consumers like grilled skewed rabbit meat, with color and aroma at levels of Medium to Like scale, and taste and tenderness on Like to Excellent scale.

References

Bambang Kartika, Pudji Hastuti, Wahyu Supartono 1988: Pedoman Uji Indrawi Bahan Pangan. Pusat Antar Universitas Pangan Dan Gizi, UGM, Yogyakarta.

Bennet, B. 1988. Raising Rabbits The Modern Way, A Garden Way Pub. Book, United States.

Chan, W., J. Brown, S.M. Lee and D.H. Buss 1995: Meat, Poultry and Game, The Royal Society of Chemistry, London.

Cheeke, P.R., N.M. Patton, S.D. Lukefahr and J.I. Mc. Nitt 1987: Rabbit Production, The Interstate Printers and Pub., Inc. Danville Illionois.

Devendra, C. and M. Burns 1983: Goat Production in the Tropics, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, London.

Forrest, J.C., E.D. Aberle, H. B. Hedrick, M. D. Judge and R. A. Merkel 1975: Principles of Meat Science, W.H. Freeman and Co., San Fransisco.

Lawrie, R. A. 1995: Ilmu Daging Diterjemahkan oleh Aminuddin Prakkasi. UI Press. Jakarta.

Priestly, R. J.  1979: Effects of Heating on Foodstuffs. Applied Sci. Pub. Ltd,  London.

Soeparno 1998: Ilmu dan Teknologi Daging. Gajah Mada University Press., Yogyakarta.

Soewarno, T. Soekarto 1985: Penilaian Organoleptik, Bharatara Karya Akasara, Jakarta.

Winarno, F.G., Srikandi Fardiaz dan Dedi Fardiaz 1980: Pengantar Teknologi Pangan. PT.  Gramedia, Jakarta.

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