To save lives and alleviate the suffering of the war-affected
civilian population in
The fuel mainly used for cooking in homes and public
The main fuel used for lighting in homes and Schools is kerosene.
Some rural households also use grass torches and firewood for lighting. The
disadvantages of firewood and kerosene as fuels include:
Excessive smoke pollution causing respiratory and eye problems
High cost of imported kerosene further straining of scarce cash resources
Dangers of fire outbreak and risk of explosions from tin kerosene lamps
Biogas technology was introduced in
The choices of biogas plants available for selection
included; the floating drum system (fairly common in neighboring
Using a laptop computer and CD-ROM copies of the Video, the
consultant trained 20 students and 2 Teachers of Rumbek
Secondary School, first on the theory of biogas and then on installation of the
TPB. This training took a period of 3 weeks. The team involved in this activity
then became known as the Rumbek Secondary School
Appropriate Technology Club (ATC).
Under the supervision of the UNICEF consultant and guidance
from Mr. Khang via Email, the members of the ATC installed the TPB near one of
the school kitchens. Subsequently, the team fed the digester with cow dung at
the rate of 20 kg (1 bucket) per day. On the 25th day, the plant was
tested by lighting the burner and the result was successful. This was the first
ever practical experience with biogas technology in
In 2002, UNICEF/OLS plans to support installation of 2 more
12.7m3 digesters at
The Biogas plant has performed satisfactorily for purposes of demonstrating that Biogas technology works. However, it has some significantly serious limitations as a cooking facility for the School.
After about 40 minutes of cooking, gas
pressure falls drastically and the flame at the burner becomes very low. Common
Sudanese meals require more than 2 hours of cooking. Often, the cook has to
remove the food from the biogas burner after 40 minutes and transfer to the
3-stone firewood place. There is an urgent need to solve the gas pressure drop
problem so that a sufficiently high cooking flame is maintained for 2 hours of
It was observed that when the gas was not used, the digester expanded excessively and much of the digester material was expelled out through the outlet. The result was that active bacteria and undigested matter were lost with the effluent and low gas production followed. Adding fresh dung from animal rumen (from the local abattoir) solved this problem. Also, when much effluent was lost in this way, the level of digester slurry fell below the level of inlet pipe and gas was lost through the inlet. Adding water to compensate the lost effluent solved this problem.
There is encouraging proof that the TPB
can be a resilient and durable plant. Towards the end of 2001,
The ATC students have established a ¼ acre vegetable garden next to the biogas plant where they grow popular local vegetables such as Amaranthus and Okra. The students use the rich natural fertilizer from the Biogas plant to improve the soil on this plot. The vegetables are bought by local people and institutions, which provides some cash income for the Biogas team. UNICEF/OLS aims to support this initiative by providing high value crop seed such as Onion and Tomato to the students.
A Biogas Technology Community Awareness workshop named
“towards intensified use of Biogas in
Considerably reduce expenditure on Kerosene and Charcoal for the war impoverished communities by using cow dung which is locally available
Reduce the time spent by women to look for firewood in the forest and remove the common risk of snakebites while collecting firewood
Improve soil fertility by adding organic matter from the digester for vegetable gardens and so enhance nutrition and improve household food security
Create an opportunity for youth employment by imparting skill (biogas technology will be an employable skill once the technology is widely adopted by communities).
Provide the communities with a clean non pollutant fuel for cooking and lighting and protect the environment by reducing tree cutting for firewood
The general mood of the 3-day stakeholder participatory
workshop pointed towards an enormous potential for adoption of the biogas
South Sudanese own large herds of cattle that are grazed in open
fields and kept overnight at cattle camps. It is possible to collect several
tonnes of cow dung from one cattle camp every morning. However during the dry
season, cattle camps are moved far from the towns and villages in search of
pasture and water. There could be a shortage of cow dung for biogas during such
times. Currently, this problem is being addressed by introducing the use of oxcarts
to transport dung from cattle camps to biogas plants.
Water is a scarce resource in
The biggest challenge for the TPB is the local availability of the
plastic tube and burners. These are currently imported from
Local availability of the tubular plastic
will further reduce the cost of the TPB and so make the technology affordable
to households in
Over-dependence on firewood and booming populations has
resulted in a sharp decline of woody biomass in
A few large-scale biogas plants were in operation in
Special Energy Program of the Ministry of Energy and Regional Development (SEP/MOERD)
Tunnel Technology Limited (TTL)
The Fixed Dome type digester is promoted by the Christian Intermediate Technology Center (CITC)
Poor design and construction of digesters, wrong operation and lack of maintenance by users
Poor dissemination strategy by the promoters
Lack of project monitoring and follow-up by promoters
Poor ownership responsibility by users
Failure by government to support biogas technology through a focused energy policy
The main constraints to Biogas technology dissemination in
High initial investment cost for the common types of biogas plants (the cost of a family size floating drum plant is US$1667 - beyond the means of rural farmers)
Lack of flexible community friendly credit schemes to help poor farmers own plants
Bad experiences and poor image created by many failed Biogas plants
Lack of government commitment (policy) and limited private sector input because of low profit incentive.
Lack of recent research information on biogas technology
from within and from countries where the technology has been successful such as
Lack of financial support to small firms and serious individuals to set up effective business operation in the appropriate technology energy sector.Small and seasonal disposable farmer incomes to invest in biogas technology owing to competing needs and obligations
Establishment of a networking
relationship with the
Providing information on recent developments in recycling of livestock wastes through biodigesters and water plants to biogas promoters and owners.
Promoting and perfecting the use of the low-cost Tubular Plastic Biodigester (TPB) technology in rural communities and institutions hence making biogas affordable to the poor.
Sharing of the technology on production of
the plastic tubes for the TPB so that these become locally available in remote
locations such as
Possibly providing scholarships for
students and teachers from the disadvantaged communities in
Possibly initiating a farmer-to-farmer exchange visit program to enhance technology transfer and friendship at the community level through sharing of experiences and cultures.
An, Rodriguez Lylian, Sarwatt S V,