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Research proposal for MSc. study

Name: Chu Manh Thang

Department of Animal Nutrition and Management,

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU,

P.O. Box 7024, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden

Research title: Effect of integrated production of cassava and "Nho Nhe" legume (Phaseolus calcaratus) on biomass yield and as protein source for growing cattle

Applicant: Chu Manh Thang

Address: National Institute of Animal Husbandry (NIAH)

Thuyphuong, Tuliem, Hanoi, Vietnam

Tel.: (84) 04 8387448

Fax: (84) 04 8389775

Email address: Thangniah@mail.ttvn.com

Research duration: 2003-2005

Supervisors:

Prof. Dr. Hans Wiktorsson (*)

Dr. Mai Van Sanh (**).

Prof. Dr. Le Viet Ly (**) .

(*) Department of Animal Nutrition and Management,
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,
P.O. Box 7024, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden

(**)National Institute of Animal Husbandry,
Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development
Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background

Due to high population pressure and low cultivated land per capita serious consideration is being given to the development of sustainable agriculture (Le Viet Ly, 1996). The use of processed concentrate for ruminant will be too expensive in relation to cost of animal products. Better utilization of locally available feed resources as animal feed is necessary to improve ruminant production.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a tropical plant with a palmate leaf formation producing tubers at the base of the stem. Cassava thrives in sandy-loam soil with low organic matter, in areas receiving low rainfall and with high temperature (Wanapat et al., 1997) and even growing well on extremely acids soil and give reasonable yields when most other crop would either fail or give very poor yields (Cork and Howeler, 1978). Traditionally, cassava can be planted to produce root for human consumption and small amount of fresh cassava foliage, including the tender stem are used directly for animal feeding (Do Thi Thanh Van, 2001). The potential yields of cassava leaves as by-products at root harvesting may amount to as much as 4.64 tonnes dry matter per hectare (Ranvindran and Rajaguru, 1988). If cassava is grown for foliage in the dry season, it can give 41 tonnes/ha of fresh leaves, equivalent to about 12 tonnes per ha of cassava hay (Dung et al., 2003). Cassava leaves are known to be an excellent source of protein (Wanapat, 2001). Content of protein in cassava leaves varies greatly, from 17% to 34% on DM basis (Roger and Milner, 1963). Cassava foliage, or hay made from cassava foliage, has been fed to ruminant with good results (Ffoulkes and Preston, 1978; Devendra, 1977; Wanapat et al.,1997) and have good combination of amino acids (Wanapat, 2001). However, the planting of cassava takes long-time (10-11 months) before harvesting the roots and it has been limited by making of exhausted soil when uninterrupted cassava planting without alternation of crops. Polthanee et al, (2001) have indicated that after several yeas of planting cassava in mono-culture the soil will be eroded and the fertility of the soil will be affected negatively. Due to cassava being characterized as an "exploitive" crop, destructive of the soil fertility (Preston, 2001), it is necessary to intercrop with other plants for prevention of exhausted soil.

"Nho Nhe" (Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.) is a leguminous plant that can grow well in the upland, poor and waterless soil. Besides, "Nho Nhe" legume has regeneration ability and improves the soil fertility by their root nitrogen fixation. In the mountainous areas, farmers have planted the legume to produce seeds that can be sold on the market. The harvesting time of seeds is usually at the end of the year and the duration of planting is 10 months. The data of chemical composition of "Nho Nhe" legume is limited. Some research has been done on using the legume as fodder, where green material is used for grazing or, more commonly, cut and mixed with dry cereal for stall feeding (Tarawali et al 1997; Polthanee et al., 2001).

Intercropping is one mean of increasing the income of farmers' rain-fed farming system, as it helps to better utilize the resources and ensures higher returns per unit area and time (Joy et al. 1981, Polthanee, 1999, Dung, et al., 2003). Moreover, in the integrated crop-animal farming system, cassava can be grown as a component, livestock and crops are closely integrated (Preston, 2001). Furthermore, livestock manure becomes a valuable asset for recycling nutrients back to the soil. Therefore, studies of better integration of cassava and "Nho Nhe" in cattle keeping on smallholder farms are needed.

The objectives:

The general objective is to optimize the use of cassava and "Nho Nhe" legume as feed for cattle in sustainable systems, in order to improve the economic return to small households in the rural areas.

The specific objectives are:

1. To investigate the growth, biomass productivity and chemical composition of cassava and "Nho Nhe" legume when grown in an integrated system.

2. To study the utilization of mixed cassava and legume foliage as protein supplement for growing cattle

Experiment 1. Evaluation of biomass yield and chemical composition of cassava and "Nho Nhe" legume under monoculture and integrated system.

1.1. Introduction.

In Vietnam, cassava is normally planted in the hilly and mountainous area where rice is difficult to grow. The area of cassava cultivation is about 250,000 ha to 350,000 ha per year with a total production of 3 million tones of roots per year (Do Thi Thanh Van, 2001, Khang et al,.1999). When cassava is grown for foliage in the dry season, it can give 41 tonnes/ha of fresh leaves, equivalent to about 12 tonnes per ha of cassava hay (Dung et al., 2003). Beside, the cassava foliage is known to be an excellent source of protein (Wanapat, 2001). Ffoulkes and Preston (1978) showed that cassava foliage was a better source of "by-pass" protein than sweet potato. Cassava foliage has been made into cassava hay in Thailand and used successfully as a source of un-degraded protein with high content of digestible nutrients.

Growing cassava as a sole crop could lead to deterioration of soil fertility after several years of planting. Ashokan et al. (1985) have indicated that legumes can be considered as suitable crops for inter-cropping with cassava. They can possibly be used for improving soil fertility through their root nitrogen fixation and crop residue. Therefore, the legume is not only improving soil fertility but can also be used as protein source in animal feeding.

1.1.1 The objectives of the study

To evaluate the effect of intercropping system on total biomass yield (the foliage, root and seed) and chemical composition of cassava and "Nho Nhe" legume in comparison with monoculture.

1.2. Hypotheses

The integrated system will increase the edible biomass yield and be a more valuable protein source as supplement feed for ruminants in comparison with monoculture system.

1.3. Study site

The experiment will be carried out on farms at BaVi district, Hatay province.

1.4. Materials and methods

1.4.1. Experimental design

The experimental design is 5 x 2 factors arranged with 2 replications. The experimental plots will be each of size 10 m x 10m (100m2) arranged as a randomised complete block design. The first factor is 5 methods of planting the cassava and the legume; the second factor is harvesting of legume and cassava foliage at intervals or at the end when the legume is harvested for seed and the cassava for roots. The layout of the plots is shown in Tables 1a and 1b:

Table 1a: The experimental layout

   

45 days interval harvesting of cassava and legume foliage (cutting of legume for foliage) (IH)

Harvesting at the end when collect the roots / seed (no frequent cutting of foliage) (FH)

 

Row of cassava

Row of legume

Row of cassava

Row of legume

CAI

Only

None

Only

None

CAF *

Only

None

Only

None

CA1:LE1

1

1

1

1

CA2:LE1

2

1

2

1

CA1:LE2

1

2

1

2

Note:

- (*): in CAF the plots are only planted with cassava (the same in CAI) but the biomass and rood yield will be harvested at the end of the experiment to compare with the biomass yield of CAI that will be harvested at intervals.

- In CA1:LE1 one row of cassava will be intercropped with one row of legume

- In CA2:LE1 two rows of cassava will be intercropped with one row of legume

- In CA1:LE2: one row of cassava will be intercropped with two rows of legume

Table 1b: The experimental layout in the field

Block 1

Block 2

IH

IF

IH

IF

CAF

CA2:LE1

CA1:LE2

CA2:LE1

CA1:LE2

CA1:LE1

CA1:LE1

CAF

CAI

CAI

CAI

CA1:LE2

CA2:LE1

CAF

CAF

CAI

CA1:LE1

CA1:LE2

CA2:LE1

CA1:LE1

1.4.2. Land preparation, fertilization and planting:

- Land will be ploughed 3 months before seeding.

- The fertiliser will be applied in the form of organic manure (from cattle) before planting at the same level of 2 kg/ m2 fresh weight in all treatments. No other fertiliser will be applied during the experimental period.

- In all the plots plant spacing of cassava in the row is 30cm and the distance between the rows is 50 cm. The same amount of legume seeds will be applied in each row.

1.4.3. Sampling and measurement

- Biomass yield of cassava and legume will be determined:

* The first collection at 3 months after planting: all the stem and leaves will be cut 30 cm above the ground. The cassava and legume fodder will be separated in leaves, petioles and stems, weighed in fresh form and samples taken for analysis.

* The procedure will be repeated at 45 days interval.

- The biomass of cassava root and legume seed will be collected at the end of the year.

- The legume seeds will be separated from the pods and weighed

- Net income will be calculated

1.4.4. Chemical analyses

Chemical composition of cassava and legume: dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), ADF, NDF, Ca, P, HCN will be analysed in the laboratory of NIAH following the international standards.

Total nitrogen will be determined by Kjeldahl technique and CP will be calculated as N x 6.25 (AOAC, 1990). Ash and ADF will be determined according to (AOAC, 1990). Ether extract will be determined by ISO (9492:1999) and ADF will be determined by the method of Van Soest (1991) using sodium sulphite and amylase and expressed with residual ash. The HCN will be determined by the methods of Ikediobi et al. (1980).

1.5. Statistical analysis

Analysis of variance will be used to analyze the data with Minitab software version 13, following the statistical model below:

Yijkl = m+ ai + bj +γk + (ab) ij +eij

m = The general mean

ai = the ith block

bj = the jth treatment

(ab)ij = the ith block * the jth treatment

e = the eth error term.

Experiment 2. Study on the utilization of mixed cassava and legume fodder as protein supplement for growing cattle

2.1. Introduction

In Vietnam, the traditional diets for calves after weaning consist mainly of cultivated grasses and concentrate. However, due to high cost of concentrate and not much available in dry season, calves will not often get enough supplements to reach their requirement. Also most of native forages are known to have low digestibility and low crude protein content, especially during the dry season (Göhl, 1994). Urio and Ekern (1988) reported that if the level of crude protein in the forages is not more than 7 percent, it will result in a low intake and consequently reduced growth rate or even loss in live weight. Growing animals have high requirement for amino acids, glucose and long chain fatty acids (Leng, 1986). It has been suggested by Osuji et al (1993) to supplement diet in order to attain adequate amount of glucose and glycogenic compounds to obtain high ruminant productivity from low quality tropical forage. Supplementary feed with 15.3 - 16.5% CP was reported to reduce age at first and second calving, increase conception rate, give longer lactation and higher milk yield (Kayongo et al. 1982)(Lacking in the ref. list). It is necessary to supply enough nutrients for calves after weaning. It is common that the calf is weaned after 3-6 months of age. The age may be a variable alternative when forages are scarce and milk production is low in the latter part of the grazing season. If weaned at 6 months of age the weight of calf is about 120 to 130 kg. After weaning the starter ration should contain about 14-16% crude protein on a dry matter basis and moderate energy content (Guyer, 1983). When the calves are eating well, they can continue on a complete ration or a grain-supplement mix and hay designed for the rate of gain desired. Guyer (1983) suggested feeding about 2.2 kg of long grass hay per head daily in addition to a complete ration.

The role of cassava foliage as well as the potential of protein legume as protein supplement to low quality diet has been reported by Wanapat (2001), Preston (2001), Richard et al., (1994a) and Glen (1995). The value of these sources as supplements is partly dependent on their capacity to provide essential nutrients to the microbial population. They may also directly provide additional energy and protein to meet the host (animal) requirement.

2.1.1 The objectives

To evaluate the effect of the different supplement sources on feed intake and growth rate of calves after weaning in smallholder farm condition.

2.2. Hypotheses

Supplements of mixed cassava fodder and legume will improve the growth rate of calves and also make more benefit for farmer due to replacement of the expensive concentrate.

2.3. Experimental site

The experiment will be carried out on farms in BaVi district, Hatay province.

2.4. Materials and methods

2.4.1 Animals and housing

Eighteen crossbred weaned calves (F3) with 5-6 months of age will be used in the experiment. The weight of the experimental animals will be around 120 - 130 kg. The animals will be housed in individual pens. Clean, fresh water will be available ad libitum during the whole experiment.

2.4.2 Experimental design

The treatment period will last for 60 days. The animals will have two weeks adaptation period prior to the treatment period. At the end of the adaptation period (last 3 days), the animals will be weighed every day and randomly allocated to 3 groups of six calves each. Data on daily feed intake will be recorded. Feed samples for analysis will be taken before feeding.

2.4.3 Diet and treatments

Based on the diet of ad libitum of elephant grass at 45-50 days of regrowth the animals will be supplied with supplements depending on the treatment. The supplement of energy source with cassava root, supplement of energy and protein source with a mixture of cassava fodder and legume (1:1), and none supplement will be allocated to group 1 (CR); group 2 (CALE)and group 3 (Control), respectively. The supplements are:

CR: cassava root

CALE: mixed cassava foliage and legume (1:1) (DM basis)

Control: No supplement.

All the supplement ingredients will be dried and then ground before mixing and feeding to the animals. The experimental design is shown in Table 2.

Table 2: The layout of the experiment

CR

CALE

Control

N0 of animal

6

6

6

Age month (months)

5-6

5-6

5-6

Weight (kg/head)

120-130

Adaptation period (days)

15

15

15

Experimental period (days)

60

60

60

Diet

Cut grasses (kg/head/day)

Ad libitum

Ad libitum

Ad libitum

Supplement

Cassava root meal (kg/head/day)

1

-

-

Mixed dried cassava fodder + legume (kg/head/day)

-

1

-

The nutrient requirement of weaned calves at 5-6 months of age (120-130kg live weight and live weight gain of 0.5 kg/day) NRC (1988) and the supplied nutrition for experimental animal are show in Table 3.

Table 3: The supplied nutrients to experimental animal compared to nutrient requirement (NRC, 1988)

Parameter

Supplied animal nutrition

Nutrition requirement
 (NRC, 1988)

CR

CALE

Control

Total DMI (kg/day)

3.38

3.38

3.38

3.38

ME (MJ/kgDM)

9.66

8.99

8.16

10.08

Crude protein (%)

7.19

12.65

8.80

12.97

Calcium (%)

0.11

0.50

0.10

0.51

Phosphorus (%)

0.11

0.17

0.10

0.31

NDF (%)

57.85

64.00

75.82

34.00

ADF (%)

40.29

44.14

52.31

19.00

Note: the total DM intake was calculated at 2.6% of calf live weight

Table 4: Chemical composition of feed ingredients of rations (% on DM basis)

DM
(%)

ME
(MJ/kgDM)

CP
(%)

Calcium
(%)

Phosphorus
(%)

NDF
 (%)

ADF (%)

Elephant grass

18

8.16

8.80

0.1

0.1

75.8

52.3

Cassava root meal

88

13.9

2.6

0.1

0.1

6.8

6.2

Mixed cassava foliage+
legume foliage (1:1)

91

11.2

23.0

1.6

0.4

32.8

22.6

2.4.4 Measurements

All feeds will be weighed before feeding and supplied separately to the animal. Individual feeding will be practiced. Refused feed will be weighed back every morning. Feed samples will be collected at these occasions and analyzed for calculation of daily dry matter intake.

The animals will be weighed before feeding (at 7h) three consecutive days at the end of the pre-period and every 14 days. Average daily gain (ADG) will be calculated from the regression of live weight (y = kg) on time (x= days). The feed conversion rate and the economic efficiency will also be calculated.

2.5. Statistical analysis

Analysis of variance will be used to analyze the data with Minitab software version 13, following the statistical model below: The experiment will be a completely randomized block design. Statistical analyses will be by Minitab software version 13 with the general linear model procedure as below.

Yijk = m + ai + bj +(ab)ij +eij
m = the general mean
ai = the ith treatment

bj = the jth block

(ab)ij = the ith treatment * the jth block
e = the etherror term

References.

Ashokan, P.K., Vikraman R. and Sudhadara, K., 1985. Study on cassava -legume intercropping system for the Oxisols of Kerala State, India. Trop. Agric. 62 (4). Pp: 313-318

AOAC, 1990. Official methods of Analysis. 15th Edition. Association of Analytical Chemist , Washington DC.

Capuco, A. V., Smith, J.J., D.R. and Elsasser, T.H. 1989. Effect of diet and pre-pubertal growth rate of Holstein heifer on mammary glnd growth and milk production. Journal of Dairy Science

Cock, J. H., Howeler, R.C., 1978. The ability of cassava to grow on poor soil. In: Crop Tolerance to Sub Optimal Land Condition (Ed. Jung, G.A) American Society of Agronomy Special Publication No. 32, 145-154.

Dung, N.T. , Ledin, I. and Mui, N.T. 2003. Evaluation of cassava intercropping systems and cassava hay as a feed for growing goats. MSc. Thesis, Uppsala 2003. ISBN 91-576-6568-0

Glen, A. B. 1995. Desirable characteristics of forage legumes for improving protein utilization in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science. 73: 2760-2773

Guyer, P. Q. 1983. Management of Early Weaned Calves. http://ianrpubs.unl.edu/beef/g655.htm

Ikediobi, C.O., Onylia, G.O.C., Eluwah, C.E., 1980. A rapid and inexpensive enzymatic assay for total cyanide in cassava and cassava products. Agriculture and Biological Chemistry 44 (12).

Ffoulkes, D., Preston, T.R., 1978. Cassava or sweet potato forage as combined sources of protein and roughage in molasses based diets: effect of supplementation with soyabeen meal. Tropical Animal Production (3), 186-192.

Khang, D.N., Wiktorsson, H., 1999. Effect of cassava leaves meal on rumen enviroment of local yellow cattle fed urea-treated paddy rice and ruminal dry matter degradability of some local available feeds. MSc. Thesis, Uppsala 1999. ISBN 91-576-5671-1

Leng, R. A., 1986. Constraints to ruminant production and concepts to increase productivity from low digestibility forages. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on livestock production and disease in the tropics .Malaysia, 18-22 August.

Göhl, B. 1994. Tropical Feeds. FAO Animal Production and Health Series

Osuji, P. O., Sibanda, S. and Nsalhai, I.V. 1993. Supplementation of maize stover for Ethiopian Menz sheep: Effect of cottonseed, nough (Guizotia abyssiniaca) or sunflower cake with or without maize on the intake, growth, apparent digestibility nitrogen balance and excretion of purine derivatives. Animal production, 57: pp. 429-436

PrestonT R, 2001, Potential of cassava in integrated farming. Proceeding of International Workshop of Use of cassava as animal Feed. July 23-24, 2001

Polthanee A, Wanapat S, Wanapat M and Wachirapokorn C, 2001. Cassava-legumes inter-cropping: A potential food-feed system for dairy farmers. Proceeding of International Workshop of Use of cassava as animal Feed. July 23-24, 200 http://www.forum.org.kh/~mekarn/proc-cass/do.htm

Ravindra, V., Rajaguru, A.S.B. 1988.
Effect of stem pruning on cassava root yield and leaf growth. Sri Lankan Journal of Agriculture Science 25(2), 32-37.

Richard, D.E., Brown, W.F., Ruegsegger, G. and Bates, D. B. 1994a, Replacement value of tree legume for concentrate in forage based diets. Replacement value of Grilicidia sepium for growing goat. Animal feed science and technology, 46: pp 37-51.

Rogers, D.J., Milner, M., 1963. Amino acid profile of mirioc leaves protein in relation to nutritive value. Economic Botany 17, 211-216.

Roy, R. P., Sharma, H.M., Thakur, H.C., 1981. Studies on intercropping in long duration pigeon pea on sandy loam soil in North Bihar. Indian J. Agri. 26(1), 68-72.

Tarawalli, S.A, Singh, B.B., Peters, M. and Blade, S.F. 1997 Cowpea haulms as fodder. In: Advantage in cowpea research (Eds. Singh, B.B., Mohan, D.R., Dashiell, K.E. and Jackai, L.E.N) Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. Pp:313-325.

Van D T T, Mui N T and Binh D V, 2001. Cassava as small ruminant feed in the hilly and mountainous area of Bavi district in Northern Vietnam. Proceeding of International Workshop of Use of cassava as animal Feed. July 23-24, 2001 http://www.forum.org.kh/~mekarn/proc-cass/van.htm

Van Soest, P.J., 1991. The Nutritional Ecology of ruminants. O and Q Books. OR. Pp.198-207 and 337-348

Wanapat, M., Pimpa, O., Pellum, A., Boontao, U., 1997. Cassava hay: A new strategic feed for ruminants during the dry season. Livestock Research for Rural Development (9) 2: http://www.cipav.org.co/Irrd/ Irrd 9/2/metha92.htm

Wanapat, M., 2001. Role of cassava hay as animal feed in the tropic. International Workshop Current Research and Development on Use of Cassava as Animal Feed. KhonKaen University, Thailand, July 23-25, 2001.

Workplan:

Activity

2003

2004

2005

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Writing proposal

x

Preparing the land

x

x

x

Planting and seeding (cassava and legume) (Exp.1)

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Feeding trials in animal. (Exp. 2)

x

x

x

x

Data analysis and writing paper

x

x

x

x

Completing, defending thesis

x

Budget for the experiments

Inputs

No

Parameters

USD

1

Experiment 1

Hiring machine for preparing land

500

Hiring labour (planting, weeding, irrigating, harvesting, dry…):
11 months x 2 labourer x 100 USD/month

2200

Analyse samples

7 criteria x 5 treatment x 4 replicate x 5 times x 2.0 USD

1400

2

Experiment 2

- Hiring animal house (include of water and electric) for 3.5 months

150

- Support for repairing cattle houses

100 USD/farm x 3 farms

300

- Cost of experimental animals (vaccination, drugs..)

18 cattle x 20 USD/head

360

- Analyzed samples:
7 criteria x 18 animals x 9 times x 0.2 USD

227

- Feeding costs

Elephant grasses: 7 kg/head/day x 18 cattle x 3.5 month x 30 days x 0.03 USD/kg

397

3

Literature (fax, email, picture…)

100

4

Transportation

500

5

Communication

200

Total

6,334

2. Out put (from experimental products)

- "Nho Nhe" legume seed + extra cassava root: 250 kg x 1.34 USD/kg = 334 USD

The experiment cost will be: 6,207 -334 = 6,000 USD